Last July I posted this study about compression socks that found an improvement in running performance Therefore, stockings with constant compression in the area of the calf muscle significantly improved running performance at different metabolic thresholds. However, the underlying mechanism was only partially explained by a slightly higher aerobic capacity. -Effect of Compression Stockings on Running Performance in Men Runners
MY COMMENT: 36.44 min vs 35.03 min on a treadmill test is a significant difference. As far as I know, Chris Solinsky is the only world class runner wearing compression socks. Watch the finish as Solinsky shocks American distance running with a sub 27 min in his first 10,000 meter race while wearing compression socks (why hasn't this caught on?)
Recoverysocks.com has a list of some additional studies that found reduced soreness with compression socks.